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  PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS
1
 Point Option High School
 Virginia. USA
2
 C S Ramachary Memorial   Matriculation School
 Madurai, India
3
 Wako Kokusai High School
 Wako. Japan
 
 
 
 
SUBMARINES
Introduction    Structure    Capacity    Usage    Nuclear Submarine    Conclusion
Introduction

A submarine is a watercraft which operates below the surface of water. Submarines are large, medium sized or small vessels which are autonomous. The word submarine means “under the sea” and the vessels which travel under the sea are known as submarine boats, or submarines.

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Structure

Submarines have a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure, which has communication and sensing devices and also periscopes. In earlier models there was a conning tower, a pressure hull above the main body for the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller at the back and many control fins and ballast tanks.

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Capacity

Submarines have a large capacity. Capacity ranges from small autonomous models to one or two person vessels. These vessels operate for a few hours. There are some vessels, which can remain submerged for even six months. Submarines work at greater depths where human divers can survive.

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Usage

Submarines were designed during the 19th century. Submarines came into use in World War I. They were used for attacking enemy ships, protection of aircrafts and also in conventional land attacks.

They are also used in the field of marine science. Submarines are widely used in exploration and for facility inspection and maintenance. They are additionally used for search and rescue, under sea cable repair, for tourism and also for research purposes.

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Nuclear Submarine

This submarine is powered by a nuclear reactor. It has additional advantages beyond the conventional type. Such advantages include as nuclear propulsion, lack of reliance on air, able to maintain high speeds for a longer duration, and longer intervals between refueling. Nuclear submarines need not be brought to the surface often. The current generation of nuclear submarines have a life span of 25 years. The only disadvantage is that the nuclear submarines are quite expensive.

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Conclusion

Submarines are mainly used in the time of war. The use for research purpose of a submarine is common today.

 
Research : Sathana & Mathankini, CSR
 
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