Introduction

Judo is a combative and defensive sport that includes different moves: rolls, falls, throws, holds, chokes, joint-locks, and strikes. Because of some of the moves in judo are dangerous, use of the techniques are limited for each age group and rank. That way, someone with a high rank can't join a tournament for combatants below his rank.

History

Judo, when read by its original kanji (柔道), means "gentle way". It is a way of physical education and moral training. It was founded by Jigoro Kano during the early 1880s. During that time, Kano's purpose was to add more moves to jujutsu. Those moves eventually led to the birth of Judo. Kano first opened judo classes in Tokyo in 1882. Judo became an Olympic event in the 1932 Los Angeles Olympics.

Rules

  • Touching or grabbing the opponent's face is not permitted.
  • No punching, kicking, and other hitting methods are allowed.
  • Aiming at spots to attack, other than the elbow, is not allowed.
  • Head diving into the opponent is not permitted.
  • The Kawazu Gake and the Kani Basami techniques are forbidden from being used in the Olympics.
  • In a competition, wearing any hard or metallic object is not permitted.
   

Rules (related to competition)

  • Stalling is not allowed.
  • Adopting a defensive stance is not allowed.
  • False areas are not allowed.
   

Rules (that are used to show manners)

  • Contestants must bow before & after practice or competition.
Time:

Men ---------- 5 minutes

Women------4 minutes

Throw techniques

Ippon --------- Highest scoring throw in the game

Wazaari ----- Half as valued as the Ippon throw

Yuukou ------Half as valued as the Wazaari throw

Kouka --------Half as valued as the Yuukou throw

Suppression techniques

Ippon ---------Suppress the enemy for 25 seconds

Wazaari ------Suppress the enemy for 20 seconds

Yuukou ------Suppress the enemy for 15 seconds

Kouka --------Suppress the enemy for 10 seconds

*Ippon ends the game immediately. Two Wazaari throws are the same as one Ippon throw. Other cases are decided by the judges.*

Ranking System uniform worn

The ranking system evolved as time passed and more people and races learned judo. Obi belts were used to show the rank of the practitioner and the amount of effort he or she has accomplished. At first, only black and white belts were used to show ranks, and a scroll was used to show the rank that you were. Over time, as judo became more popular, more colored belts were added to the list to make it more challenging to reach black belt. You have to be a certain minimum age in order to reach certain belts. It is not uncommon for junior competitors to defeat or fight adult competitors.

Beginner: English (Japanese) R -> L

6th grade (rokyu), 5th grade (gokyu)

4th grade (yonkyu), 3rd grade (sankyu)

2nd grade (nikyu), 1st grade (ikkyu)

Expert: English (Japanese)

1st degree (shodan), 2nd degree (nidan)

3rd degree (sandan), 4th degree (yodan)

5th degree (godan), 6th degree (rokudan)

7th degree (shichidan) 8th degree (hachidan)

9th degree (kudan), 10th degree (judan)

Techniques

Throwing: A technique that throws your opponent off balance, and falling using their own body weight.

Shoulder: The thrower uses his/her shoulder to throw their opponent

Leg (reaps or trips): Type of throw that uses the leg to knock the opponent off balance.

Hip: Type of throw that uses the hip as a pivet point to throw the opponent to the floor.

Sacrifice: If you fail to throw successfully, then you get sent to the floor.

PIck-Ups: The thrower picks up their opponent and brings them down to the ground.

Grappling (holds): Holds the opponent in a upperhand position

Stand: The contendent grasps their opponent while in a standing position

Ground: A type of grapple that brings the opponent to the ground and holds them there.

Submission: A type of pin that puts the opponent in submission until they give up.

Clinch: A type of grapple hold that is used to create less space between the contendent and the opponent for strikes.

Pinning: Type of grapple that puts the opponent's shoulders to the ground and leaving them defenseless.

Pain compliance: Type of hold that uses painful joint locks, compression locks, and pressure points to hold the opponent.  

Bibliography: 

Ohlenkamp, Neil. "Judo." Official Judo Information Site At Judoinfo.Com. 23 Feb. 2008. Feb. 2008 <http://www.judoinfo.com/>.

"Judo." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 22 Mar. 2008. Wikipedia Foundations, Inc. Feb. 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judo>.